In February 2011 Microsoft discontinued CardSpace, a Windows application for federated login that was the deployment vehicle for the U-Prove privacy-enhancing Web authentication technology, which itself is said to have inspired the NSTIC initiative. Cormac Herley, a Microsoft researcher, and Paul van Oorshot, a professor at Carleton University, have written a paper entitled A Research Agenda Acknowledging the Persistence of Passwords that mentions the CardSpace failure and calls for research on traditional password authentication.
The paper makes two points:
- It blames the failure of attempts at replacing passwords on a lack of research on identifying and prioritizing the requirements to be met by alternative authentication methods.
- It argues that passwords have many virtues, will persist for some time, and may be the best fit in many scenarios; and it calls for research on how to better support them.
I disagree with the first point but agree with the second.
Other single sign-on initiatives had obvious non-technical obstacles. OpenID required people to use a URL as their identity, something that could only appeal to the tiny fraction of users who understand or care about the technical underpinnings of the Web. CardSpace was a Microsoft product; that by itself must have provided motivation for all Microsoft competitors to oppose it; furthermore it only ran on Windows; and in order to support CardSpace relying party developers had to install and learn to use a complex toolkit. Again, no wonder CardSpace failed.
The non-technical obstacles faced by Passport, OpenID and CardSpace were due to lack of maturity of the Web industry. Such obstacles will slowly go away as the industry matures. Signs of maturity are appearing: there are now five major browsers that seem to understand the need for common standards; the World Wide Web consortium (W3C) has shown that it can bring them together to develop standards such as HTML5 and has already engaged them in identity work through the Identity in the Browser workshop and the identity mailing list that was set up after the workshop; and OpenID 2.0 no longer insists on users using URLs as their identities. Industries can take decades to mature, so it’s not surprising that progress is slow.
As for passwords, I agree that they have virtues, will persist, and deserve research. There is actually research on passwords going on.
Password managers are an active area of research and development by browser providers and others.
There was a session on passwords at the last Internet Identity Workshop (IIW), called by Jay Unger, where Alan Karp described his site password tool, which can be viewed as an alternative to a password manager, where passwords for different sites are computed rather than retrieved from storage. The tool computes a high entropy password for a Web site from a master password and an easy-to-remember name for the site.
I have myself been recently granted two patents on password security, which were also discussed at the IIW session on passwords:
- One of them describes a countermeasure against online password guessing that places a hard limit on the total number of guesses that an attacker can make against a password. Besides the traditional counter of consecutive bad guesses the countermeasure uses an additional counter of total bad guesses, not necessarily consecutive. The user is asked to change her password if and when this second counter reaches a threshold, rather than at arbitrary intervals.
- The other describes a technique for password distribution, that allows an administrator to send a temporary password to a user, e.g. after a password reset, over an unprotected channel such as ordinary email. The administrator puts a hold on the user’s account that allows no further access beyond changing the temporary password into a password chosen by the user. The administrator removes the hold only after being notified by the legitimate user that she has successfully changed the password, e.g. over the phone. In abstract terms, instead of relying on a confidential channel to send the password, the administrator relies on a channel with data-origin authentication to receive the user’s notification.
Microsoft or anybody else who wants to increase password security can license either of these patents. You may use the contact form of this site to inquire about licensing.